Cullen Family History and Genealogy

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The Second Generation

 

 

 

 

The Cullens of Templeton Township

 

 

 

The Second Generation - The Builders

 

This chapter covers the lives of John and Elizabeth Cullen's children. Except for Elizabeth, who married and moved to Plantagenet in Upper Canada, they and their spouses were all builders and key players in the economic development of Templeton Township. Their collective record of success in farming, timbering and politics was unmatched by any other family in the Township.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"John Cullen Road"

 

Thomas Kennedy's land

 

Anthony Cullen's land

 

Bernard Cullen's land

 

 

John Cullen Jr.'s land

 

St. Francois de Sales Church

 
Map of Gatineau area showing Cullen land locations

John Cullen's land

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthony Cullen & Ursula Macdonell


 

 

Born about 1806, Anthony (likely known as Tony) became the entrepreneur and business success of the Cullen family. He initially worked with his father in the 1830s to develop a thriving timber business, then expanded it over the next 30 years. He was one of three leading businessmen and employers in Templeton in the mid 1850s. He was also active in church and community affairs and the local political scene.

 

Nothing is known of his early life in Ireland. As the eldest, he would have worked to support John's large family and assisted in the arduous task of emigration. It is also likely that Anthony worked alongside his father in the Rideau Canal project, for it seems inconceivable that a 21 year old would be granted a scarce 100 acre lot in nearby Templeton Township so soon after coming to Bytown. The family connection must have been the reason. As to Anthony's lot, although the location ticket was issued in 1827[1], the grant was not official until 1852. How he could have retained the lot and not complete the required upgrading for 25 years, is a mystery. The only answer would seem to be that by the late 1830s, the Cullens had become important residents of Templeton and Anthony was developing into a noted businessman in the community, likely with a lot of influence. In any event, on February 6, 1852 his deed on his property was finally confirmed.[2]

 

 

 

Early Days

Anthony did no work on his own lot for many years but would have helped his father and hired workers build a home and complete the settlement duties on John's land. He may have used his own lot as a source of timber.

 

On November 27, 1839 Anthony married Ursula Macdonell, the 17 year old daughter of John Macdonell and Magdelaine Poitras of Pointe-Fortune, about 60 miles down the Ottawa River from Bytown.[3] Macdonell, a Scot and fur trader with the North West Company, married Magdeleine, a native while in the west. On retirement, he built a large manor house and settled in Pointe-Fortune, just east of the Carillon rapids and a natural stopping point for Bytown-Montreal trade. He fought in the War of 1812, was Colonel of the Prescott Militia, a judge in the Ottawa District and had been an elected member of the Upper Canada Parliament. He operated a freight and passenger forwarding business along the Ottawa from Pointe-Fortune to Montreal and also ran a general store from his home.[4] As mentioned earlier, John Cullen had some prior dealings with Macdonell. Anthony would have become acquainted with him through John, from his growing timber business and from travels to Montreal and Quebec.

 

The marriage took place in St. Andrews East across the Ottawa from Pointe-Fortune. It would have been a social highlight that year. Judge Macdonell and his friend Colonel de Hertel signed the register as witnesses. De Hertel was a leading citizen and officer of the militia of Argenteuil County.

These signatures are taken from their marriage certificate. Note Ursula's spelling of 'Cullen'.

 

There would be additional Cullen marital ties to Pointe-Fortune in later years.

 

The 1840s

 

The 1842 census lists selected information about the heads of families. Anthony's occupation is shown as "Lumberer", one of the few in Templeton at the time. He had been a resident of Lower Canada for 15 years and was living with Ursula and daughter Mary Elizabeth on 200 acres, of which 12 were improved. One female domestic was also in the household. Unfortunately, the location of the acreage is not given and we are left somewhat confused by the size of his lot, given the above-mentioned Cullen land base.[5]

 

 

Like many of his neighbours, Anthony was a farmer in the summer months. In 1841, he had produced 130 bu. of oats and 100 bu. of potatoes. He had 1 cow and 6 horses. But as winter approached, he would turn to lumbering and his growing logging business. In this respect, his horses, when combined with his father's 6 horses, provided the necessary motive power to drag newly felled and squared timber from the bush in preparation for the spring log drives down nearby streams and rivers. No doubt his younger brothers Michael, Barney and John Jr. would have worked alongside as well as hired workers.

 

It was probably in the 1840s that Anthony's business became large enough to support a shanty operation throughout the winter. He was not by any means a "baron" as in the Wright family and the later J.R. Booth mode, but he was becoming a significant player in the area. Through Archives data, though scanty, we are able to piece together some appreciation of the size of his operation.[6]

 

 

         1842         Timber duties collected on the Ottawa .....................................................  4 pounds on 2,000 ft of pine

         1843 -            "         "        "        "     "        "    .................................................... 81    "       "   unspecified footage

         1845         Duties on crown timber .......................................................................... 75    "       " 36,470 ft white pine

         1845-6      Timber Licences on the Gatineau River (two for 33 sq miles) and Templeton(1)  59     "

         1846         Duties collected on the Ottawa ............................................................... 57     "

         1847-52    Annual renewal of the Gatineau licences ....................................................       unspecified fees

         1852         Duties on crown timber .......................................................................... 91 pounds on 44,000 ft white pine

         1856         Duties on crown timber .......................................................................... 64 pounds on 31,150 ft pine

         1856         Duties on 4,510 white pine saw logs ......................................................... 93 pounds

 

He also acquired vast acreage in Templeton, from which he most likely cut timber for his operations. The following table shows some of his acquisitions and the dates of letters patent.

 

 

              Lot      Range     Acres          Price              Date of L.P.

          E1/2 12       8         100        L25. 4s.2p         Sept 25, 1847

                  2        8         100             L20               Dec 4, 1854

                  1        8          73        L14.12s               Oct 9, 1857

          S1/2  8        7         100            $80               June 4, 1860

          S1/2  9        7         100           $100              June 4, 1860

          S1/2  4        6         100           $100              Oct 18, 1860

          N1/2 13       7         100           $120               Oct 18, 1860

          S1/2  6        6         100           $100               Sept 3, 1863

          S1/2 10       6         100           $100               Sept 3, 1863

          S1/2 22       7         100             $80              April 19, 1864

          N1/2  8        5         100           Grant             May 13, 1864

          N1/2  6        8         100             $41               July 6, 1864

                  9        6         200            $150               July 9, 1864

 

Anthony's operation was large enough to sustain rafting but it is unknown whether he organized his own rafts for delivery of squared timber to Quebec or whether he merely delivered the product to the Ottawa River for larger operators to combine timber for forwarding to Quebec.

 

The 1850s

 

By the 1850s, Anthony was well established as one of Templeton's two principal lumber merchants, his friend Thomas McGoey being the other and larger of the two. In the 1851 census, he is listed as a Lumber Merchant. He's also similarly listed in The Canada Directory 1851 for Templeton Township and in the Ontario Directory for 1851 as one of the "principal lumber merchants on the River Ottawa and its tributaries".[7]

 

In the 1851 census, he was farming 100 acres in Range 2. This is likely half of John's original grant. He lived in a 11/2 storey log home of "piece-sur-piece" construction with his family, which now included two sons, John Godfrey and Anthony Jr. He also operated a store and blacksmith shop. Twenty acres had crops and the balance was wooded. In 1850, he had produced oats, potatoes, carrots and hay, as well as two barrels of potash. His livestock included 14 steers, 7 cattle, 4 calves, 1 pig and, importantly, 16 horses to support his timber business. Listed under his household were 2 domestics and 16 of his 50 workers.[8]

 

Anthony was a pillar of the Catholic Church. He was involved in the building of the "Chapelle sur La Blanche" on the site of the present St. Anthony of Padua church at Perkins Mills. In March 1857, Anthony was present at the dedication and blessing of the chapel by Bishop Guigues of Bytown. He also witnessed the official record of the event. He may also have donated the land for the Church.[9]

 

He and Ursula were the donors of a 252 pound bell for St. Francois de Sales Church in Gatineau Pointe, the parish for most of the Cullen families. On November 4, 1858, after Sunday mass, Bishop Guigues blessed and dedicated the bell at a ceremony and both Ursula and Anthony witnessed the official record. The Bishop named it "Ursula-Antoinette" in her honour. Perhaps Antoinette was her second name.[10]

 

Signatures from the official record                            The "Ursule-Antoinette Bell"

of the bell ceremony 1858

 

 

Anthony's position in the community was recognized. On April 17, 1856, Anthony was appointed Lieutenant in one of the Templeton militia companies, Ottawa County Regiment. On August 10, 1857, he was appointed Captain.[11] Largely ceremonial, militia duties consisted of all males between the ages of 18 and 60 gathering to muster (train) on June 29th each year. Officer positions went to former regular army veterans or local leading citizens. Thomas McGoey, brother John Cullen Jr. and brother-in-law James O'Hagan were all officers in the Templeton Militia.

 

At some point in the 1840s or 1850s (our earliest record is 1852) Anthony was appointed as one of the Justices of the Peace in Templeton. He may have been the first such appointment.[12] This is the lowest level of the judiciary, but at that time, away from the city, the JP's services would have been called upon regularly to settle disputes and minor legal issues. He held this position until at least the mid 1860s.

 

 

Anthony was also an investor in infrastructure. In 1853 he and his brother Michael invested 150 pounds in shares in the planned Montreal and Bytown Railway Company.[13] The route was to follow the Quebec side from Montreal to Hull, then cross the Ottawa to Bytown. The venture was ill advised, poorly managed and went into bankruptcy. In the 1860s, Anthony built a toll bridge on Lot 7 Range 2 that crossed the Blanche River and another on Lot 9 Range 6 that crossed a smaller waterway. The bridges caused angst with local citizens who objected to paying the wealthy entrepreneur a fee for what they deemed should be a free municipal conveyance. In 1868, the township came to an accommodation with Anthony which permitted citizens to use his bridges free pending completion of the "Bernard Cullen By Road" (see "Bernard Cullen" below).[14]

 

This is the likely site of Anthony Cullen's toll bridge. It is on Rue Cheval

 Blanc crossing the Blanche River south of Boul. St. Rene in Gatineau

He was also a significant investor in land. Between 1847 and 1864, he owned 1,373 acres in Templeton Township. It is likely that logging operations took place on these private lands

 

 

Political Activities

 

One of Anthony's memorable activities was his foray into provincial politics in 1857. In November of that year, urged by citizens of Templeton and surrounding townships, he agreed to stand for election to the Legislative Assembly as representative for Ottawa County. (This was largely in Lower Canada.) He did so because the two other candidates, Henry J. Friel of Ottawa City (later its mayor) and D.E. Papineau of Montreal, were not residents of the County, and the incumbent, also a non-resident, was thought not to have looked after the best interests of the voters.

 

In his campaign material and in the Ottawa Tribune press coverage of the campaign, we have our only insight into the personality and makeup of one of our early Cullen ancestors. He was obviously a practical man. Under an Independent Liberal platform, he emphasized lumber trade, canals, roads, bridges, postal arrangements, education, civil, political and religious rights for all and a focus on County issues. Following is his electoral handbill which he distributed to voters.

 

On December 28 he was nominated by Alonzo Wright, who in his speech, complimented Anthony as "a man of the people" - possessed of plain practical common sense, and an advocate of equal rights to all men, no matter what their creed, country, or color might be". Thomas McGoey, the unsuccessful candidate in the previous election, was his seconder and stated that Anthony was well known as a "practical, honest, upright and independent gentleman, and although not gifted in the eloquence of his opponents, he is in every way qualified to look after their best interests".[15]

 

After Messrs. Friel and Papineau made their nomination speeches, Anthony stated that he had been "induced" to run by a large number of voters in several townships in the County. But he was late into the race and Friel had a big headstart. In the end, his practical side dominated and he withdrew from the election. He probably did not want to split the vote and let Papineau win in a landslide with French-Canadian voter backing.

 

Later that week, the election was held and , despite Anthony's withdrawal, Papineau won handily.[16] Selected campaign press coverage is included in Appendix 1. This was Anthony's only venture with provincial politics. He later turned to municipal politics in 1868-69 as a councillor of West Templeton.[17]

 

In August 1858, John Cullen died at age 82 of unknown cause. With all they had been through together, this must have been a heavy loss to Anthony. He thus became de facto patriarch of the Cullen family.

 

The 1860s

 

In the 1861 census, Anthony is listed as "lumberer" and living with Ursula and his two sons on the original John Cullen 200 acre grant. The whereabouts of 20 year old daughter Mary Elizabeth is unknown. Also listed are five of his 50 workers. He reported having $16,000 invested in his lumber business, which in 1860 had produced 20,000 feet of squared timber valued at $20,000. Interestingly, the census lists monthly pay scales of the day. The men were paid $13 and his two maids received $3.[18]

 

His farming also thrived. He had 24 acres under crops and 15 in pasture with the balance wooded. As well, he had a large garden/orchard. He had 17 horses, 6 bulls, 2 steers, 4 cows, 51 sheep and 7 pigs at an estimated value of $1,800. The farm, valued at $400, produced spring wheat, peas, oats, potatoes and hay, and in 1860, 100lbs of maple syrup or sugar and 60 yards of fulled cloth. Also produced were 1,200 lbs of beef and 800 lbs of pork, most of which would likely have been for market or used to feed his shanty workers. When he had time, he must have enjoyed riding in his pleasure carriages, for he owned three valued at $80.

 

Anthony and Ursula met with tragic loss in the deaths of their sons. Anthony Jr. died at home of illness in June 1862 at age 16[19] and John, a medical student, died in St. Augustine, Florida, in December 1866 at age 23.[20] On a brighter note, daughter Mary Elizabeth married Patrick Ryan in August 1864 and moved to Ottawa. Patrick's father, John, owned a dry goods store on William Street in the Byward Market in Ottawa.

 

Ursula died in July 1870 and was followed four months later by Anthony. No obituaries have been found and the cause of their deaths is unknown. Their deaths are memorialized on the Ryan family headstone in Notre Dame Cemetery in Ottawa, but there is no record of their burial there.

 

Disposition of Anthony’s business is also unknown. Brother Michael had predeceased Anthony; brother John Jr. had moved to Michigan and brother Barney was by that time concentrating on running his large farm. One possible beneficiary of Anthony's business is brother Michael's son John. The 1891 Census lists him as a farmer with 30 employees.[21] There are numerous land transactions in this period by John and his brother Michael Thomas.

 

With Anthony's death, Templeton lost one of its important pioneers and ended much of the Cullen entrepreneurial spirit. I know of no later Cullen descendant who developed a business of the same relative size or importance.

 

 

Mary E. Cullen & Thomas Kennedy

 

 

 

Mary, born in Cavan c1807, was John and Elizabeth’s eldest daughter. Her full name was probably Mary Elizabeth given her mother’s name and the common thread of these given names throughout the next generation. Little is known about Mary. This is not surprising since early census records concentrated on family heads (males except for widows) and wives stayed at home.

 

Like Anthony, she would have played a significant supportive role in assisting the family household. She was likely a flax spinner helping her mother contribute to the family income. Likewise, she would have been a big help in the resettling to Bytown. She may have worked as a domestic prior to her marriage.

 

In 1830 she married Thomas Kennedy. To-date we have not found a marriage record. They had one child, Mary, born c1834. Mary was likely the favorite older aunt of the Cullen nieces and nephews and the first person her siblings turned to in time of need. In 1851, she was caring for 4 year old Catherine Ryan, her sister Elizabeth's daughter. Elizabeth had recently given birth to her son Bernard. In 1861, Mary was caring for her 5 year old nephew, Hugh O'Hagan. Her sister Catherine, Hugh's mother, had died four years previously and Hugh's stepmother, Elizabeth Crosby O'Hagan, had just given birth to her first child.

 

We are fairly certain Thomas (born c1804) came from Wexford. He emigrated in 1827 and likely worked on the Rideau Canal construction. In the McCabe List, the only authoritative record of some of the Irish canal workers, there are two Thomas Kennedys listed, both single and both from Wexford. One of them came from Kilmashel near NewTown Barry. Mary's sister Elizabeth married into the Ryan family of Plantagenet. The Ryans were from NewTown Barry. This Thomas Kennedy may be our Thomas. There is also a Thomas Kennedy listed among the 1st Carleton Militia which included Bytown and Rideau Canal area and was assembled on June 4, 1829.[22]

 

Sometime prior to 1836, he purchased 100 acres on Range 3, Lot 7. This land has as its southern border present day Chemin Industrielle, north of the Autoroute, and the lot occupied the western half of today's Gatineau Airport. A creek ran through the property. Thomas' name is shown on the 1836 map of Templeton. By the time of the 1842 census, for which he acted as enumerator in Templeton, he had cleared 20 acres and was producing 150 bu. of oats and 120 bu. of potatoes. He had 3 cows, 3 hogs and 5 horses.[23]

 

Thomas was also in the timber business, initially perhaps with John and Anthony, but later on his own. From census data and other colonial references, it is evident that he developed a medium-sized business and his stature in the Templeton community, while not at the level attained by Anthony, was still significant.

 

By 1851, he was a Justice of the Peace. The enumerators for the census for Templeton certified their work before him.[24] He had acquired the other 100 acres of Lot 7 and he was now one of the largest farmers in the township with 100 acres cultivated, including 30 with crops, 70 of pasture and a half acre garden/orchard. He was producing peas, oats, potatoes and hay and his livestock had increased greatly. He now had 11 steers, 6 cows, 5 calves, 1 pig and 6 horses. In 1850, he had produced 1200 lbs of butter, 1200 lbs of beef and 800 lbs of pork, likely used in a shanty operation.[25]

 

Thomas Kennedy JP signed the certificate for the 1851 census for Templeton

 

 

He had 2 houses built on his property, a 1 1/2 storey piece-a-piece house and a wooden shanty occupied by James Kennedy (assumed brother) and his family. He also had a substantial forest business in the winter, probably in squared timber. In 1851, he had 22 employees including two domestics. There are a few references found in colonial papers but not enough to substantiate the size of his business.[26]

 

1843    Duties collected on the Ottawa ................................. 12 pounds

1845    Duties collected below Bytown .................................. 17 pounds

1852    Licence granted for 1000 ft white pine ........................  2 pounds

 

Nevertheless, with 22 employees, he would have had a sizeable operation.

 

He also must have been highly connected to the political scene of the area. In the area of road construction, Thomas Kennedy was the surveyor of one such project, latterly known as The John Cullen Road. See "The John Cullen Road" below.

 

By 1861, he was still operating his large farm, now valued at $4000, but it appears he was no longer in the timber business. No employees are noted in the 1861 census. But, by this time, he did have a large farm. He had 80 acres in crops and 20 as pasture and was producing 400 bu of spring wheat, 100 bu peas, 230 bu potatoes, 70 tons of hay and 12 lbs of wool. His livestock was valued at $1,050. He now had 1 bull, 12 steers, 9 cattle, 5 horses, 3 colts or fillies, 5 sheep and 22 pigs. He was also producing 800 lbs butter and 1400 lbs of pork annually.[27]

 

Thomas died in Ottawa on January 2, 1862 as the result of an accident. The three Ottawa newspapers reported his death. The Ottawa Citizen, on the front page of its January 4th issue, reported:

 

"RUNAWAY: FATAL ACCIDENT - On Saturday evening as Thomas Kennedy, farmer, of Templeton, was returning home from the city, his horse took flight near McKay's Bay, and he was thrown with considerable force against a log, which happened to be laying on the road, fracturing all the ribs on the left side and seriously injuring the right breast. He was conveyed from the scene of the accident to Mr. Golden's Hotel on Sussex Street where he was attended by Drs. Grant and Sewell, who rendered him all the assistance in their power, but the injuries were of so severe character that he gradually sank, and he expired yesterday afternoon at four o'clock."

 

 

 

                                                                     The Tribune January 4, 1862                                Ottawa Citizen, January 4, 1862

 

 

Thomas was one of the first to be buried in the cemetery at St. Anthony's Church, Perkins. In 1998, Thomas broken headstone was lying on the ground at the eastern edge of St. Anthonys cemetery. During the cemetery caper described under "The Great Cemetery Caper" below, Thomas' headstone went missing. His remains are presumed to be still buried in the cemetery.

 

 

 

Thomas Kennedy's vandalized gravestone

at Perkins 1998.

 

 

In 1881 Mary was living with her brother Bernard and his family.[28] My father's research indicates she died on November 28, 1897 at age 90, but I have been unable to locate a death record.

 

 

 

 

Michael Cullen & Mary Barrett

 

 

 

 

John's second son, Michael, who was likely known as “Mick”, was born c1812. We have little knowledge about Michael. We know he farmed and was also in the timber business. We are not sure where he lived, but suspect he stayed with John and helped him in farming the original family land. In the 1851 Census, he is farming 200 acres with Mary Barrett, his wife and baby Mary Elizabeth.[29] Mary was the eldest daughter of Peter Barrett, Templeton's principal shoemaker. Michael may have been married previously to a Mary Davidson, although no marriage record has been found. He had the smallest farming operation of the Cullens.

 

The census notes that there were two families living in one dwelling. The other were his parents, John and Elizabeth, both in their 70s. Two domestics were employed.

 

There are no employees listed and there are few references in the colonial and legislative records. But we do know that Michael was involved in the timber industry. In 1845, he paid at least 17 pounds in duties for timber and in 1852 he had a licence covering 4000 feet of white pine. In the late 1840s and early 1850s, he and brother Bernard had licences for timber cutting in 27 square miles in the Dumoine River area up the Ottawa River across from Deep River.[30] This would have involved a substantial undertaking, but there is no available record of timber cut or duties paid.

 

The only other reference to Michael found is that he had joined Anthony in investing in the ill-fated Montreal and Bytown Railway Company. His investment was 50 pounds. See endnote 13.

 

Michael died on July 11, 1857, cause unknown and his eldest child, mary Elizabeth died in December of the same year. In the 1861 census, Mary is listed as living with her two sons in Templeton and farming on 50 acres with livestock including 1 horse, 2 cows and 1 pig. There is a note to the census that she "lives in village _____? small farm out of village", which despite the ambiguity, suggests that she was not living on the farm at that time.

 

Mary remarried in 1863 to Thomas Tully, a farmer in Templeton, with whom she had three more children.

 

 

 

 

Bernard Cullen & Mary Ann Kennedy

 

Bernard ("Barney"), my great great grandfather, was born about 1816. He became a farmer and timber logger of some substance. He was also the local politician of the family. In 1847, he married Mary Ann Kennedy, daughter of Michael Kennedy and the late Margaret Shields of Templeton. Mary Ann may have been Thomas Kennedy's niece. Bernard and Mary Ann would have a family of 13 children, the largest family of all Canadian Cullen descendants to-date.

 

 

 

 

 

By 1851, Bernard was living on a 200 acre farm at Range 5, Lot 5 with Mary Ann and 3 year old Mary Elizabeth. The letters patent weren't issued for this land until 1866, but Bernard had probably made the purchase around the time of his marriage. His son Bernard had died at birth that year. Twenty-five acres were cleared including eight in crops and 17 as pasture. He was producing peas, oats, potatoes, hay and butter and he had 3 milk cows, 2 calves, 2 pigs and 7 horses. He also had a maid and 20 employees, enough to run a small shanty operation in winter.[31] Not much is known about the size of his timber operation, but as indicated under Michael Cullen's biographical sketch above, Bernard and Michael may have been in business together.

 

In 1860, Bernard's 3 year old son Thomas died of croup. By the 1861 Census, he had greatly expanded his farm in size and output. He now had 50 acres cleared with 27 in crops and 23 in pasture. His farm was valued at $800 and he produced spring wheat, peas, oats, potatoes and hay. Also butter and pork. His livestock included 2 bulls, 6 steers, 3 milk cows, 3 horses, 1 colt and 7 pigs. He also had a maid to help with the family. There is no census indication that Bernard had employees at this time. What happened to his business is unknown. However, the ups and downs of the timber business were well founded and it is possible that he had a setback or period of unprofitability. Also, Michael had died and, if they were partners, he may have decided to discontinue the business.[32]

 

Bernard was also well known in the community. He was involved in local politics as councillor of Templeton for an unknown period until May 1861.[33] It is likely he had become bilingual. In 1862, he was appointed as a road overseer in the township.[34] In 1868, a group including Bernard presented a petition to the township that they build a road "between Lots 5 and 6 from the Queen’s Highway to the front of the 6th concession". In 1869, approval was given to lay out this road, known as "Bernard Cullen's By Road". Even today, on the west lot line of his property, there is evidence of this road. It was likely not completed, however, as today the only similar road nearby is McLaren Road which is several lots to the west, and it has been in existence since at least 1878.[35] Bisecting Lots 4 and 3 is Montee Beauchamp which starts at  Range 4 and proceeds several ranges to the north.

 

Also in 1868, he was retained by the township for 16 days at $1.05 per day to act as an assessor. [36]

By 1871, he owned a total of 300 acres and operated a large farm. He had 1 dwelling, 4 barns, 6 carts/wagons, 3 ploughs, 1 thrashing machine and 1 fanning mill. From his 50 acres of improved land, he produced 20 bu. wheat, 180 bu. oats, 40 bu. peas, 300 bu. of potatoes and 25 tons of hay. He owned 4 horses, 7 milk cows, 5 other cattle, 17 sheep and 8 pigs. In 1870, he had slaughtered 7 cattle, 11 sheep and 6 pigs, had produced 750 lbs. butter, 60 lbs. wool and 60 yds. of cloth/flannel. He had also harvested 120 pine logs from his property.[37]

 

In the 1881 census, Bernard was living with his family on the same farm. It is unknown how large his acreage was at this time. Son John and daughter Mary Elizabeth had married. All of the other children were at home. [38]

 

In November 1883, Bernard became ill. On November 12, he gave 75 acres ("a portion of Lots 4a and 4b of range 4") to his son John[39], and prepared his will[40], by which he left all his assets to his wife, with instructions to care for his widowed sister Mary. He died on December 9 and is buried in the cemetery at St Anthony’s Parish in Perkins. See "The Great Cemetery Caper" for a modern day chapter to Bernard's life.

 

Bernard Cullen's signature on his will 1883

 

Mary Ann Kennedy witnessed the document

donating 75 acres to her son John

 

By 1891, son Bernard had taken over as head of the family, living with his mother and 7 siblings[41].

 

I have toured Bernard's properties several times. The location of his original 200 acre farm (Lot 5 Range 5) is the north side of Chemin Leo Leblanc, the second lot west of Chemin Proulx). The property runs from Leo Leblanc north about 1 mile. The northern half of the property is somewhat elevated and entirely wooded. The southern half is under cultivation, perhaps on lease to others. None of the original buildings remain. Bernard's farm house and barns, which were set back from the road, have been replaced with the house and greenhouses of Les Enterprises Horticoles.

 

 

 

            

Les Enterprises Horticoles on the                    Bernard's farm looking west 2007

east side of Bernard's farm property 2007

 

Bernard also owned 200 acres at Lot 4 Range 4. Chemin Proulx bisects this property today. The north half of this lot is located in the north-west corner where Chemin Proulx turns north. He later transferred the property to his sons Michael Patrick and John. His properties remained in the hands of descendants and were sold over the period 1906 to 1927.

 

 

The Great Cemetery Caper

 

In Quebec, canon law prevents ownership of cemetery plots, thus the ability for parishes to charge cemetery land rents. In 1991, the Parish Council of St Anthony of Padua, Val des Monts, placed a small notice in the Ottawa Citizen advising that unless maintenance charges for the previous five years were paid on 48 cemetery plots, the headstones would be removed and the plots used for new burials. These plots involved burials in the 1800s and included several Cullen family ancestors. No Cullen descendants, or for that matter, descendants of other ancestors of the area, took notice. My father and I were unaware of this turn of events when we visited the cemetery in 1998. We found both Bernard Cullen's and Thomas Kennedy's headstones broken and in the bush to the east of the property.

 

Two years later it was discovered by Dad's cousin Martin Cullen, that the twin tombstones of Bernard's sons, Bernard and Patrick, had been re-inscribed with the names Meilleur and Martin. Presumably, new burials had taken place in these plots. Martin took the story to the Ottawa Citizen[42] and CBC-TV National news. Dad and I retained a lawyer in Gatineau to seek legal redress from the Parish. After two years of negotiations, we succeeded in having Bernard's stone repaired and his sons' two stones returned to their original inscriptions. As well, the Parish agreed that there would be no maintenance charges on these plots in perpetuity. A downside to the affair was that the Kennedy stone went missing in this period.

 

 

 

                                                 

Original Bernard Cullen                                 Rebuilt Headstone                                      Bernard & Patrick Cullen

Headstone 1998                                                   2005                                                  Headstones 1998

 

Sons Bernard and Patrick Cullen's re-inscribed headstones with Father Bernard's

headstone in the middle - 2005

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elizabeth Cullen & Michael Ryan

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elizabeth ("Betsy") was born c1816 and may have been the twin sister of Bernard. She married Michael Ryan of Plantagenet, Ontario in the chapel of Notre Dame in Bytown in October 1835.[43] In the church marriage record no parents are listed. As a result, we did not initially include Elizabeth in John Cullen's family. However, there were a number of circumstantial clues to the relationship. The age and timing were about right. At the time of the 1851 Census, Mary Cullen Kennedy, was caring for a child Catherine Ryan in Templeton, and two of Elizabeth’s sons married into Michael Kennedy's family in Templeton. Also, Catherine Dwyer McFaul in her book "Come My Beloved" had linked her great grandmother, Elizabeth Ryan, with our Cullens. We finally accepted that Elizabeth was probably "family" due to Elizabeth Carolan being godmother to two of Elizabeth's children. It was felt unlikely that the godmother relationship would have occurred for any other relationship.

 

Michael was the son of John Ryan originally of NewTown Barry, Wexford, and one of the Plantagenet area's early settlers.[44] Michael and his brothers George, Dennis and Patrick were privates in the 1st Regiment Prescott Militia, 10th Company in 1828 &1829.[45] Michael operated a tavern and hotel in Plantagenet Mills from the mid 1830s until 1860s. It would have been on the road from Bytown to Hawkesbury. It's still in operation today as the Commercial Hotel. It's possible that Michael first met Anthony or John Cullen through the hotel. Another possibility is that the Ryans were friends of the Templeton Kennedys and met through Thomas Kennedy. Michael later became a farmer south of Curran, Ontario.

 

 

Michael Ryan's hotel at Plantangenet Mills, Ontario 1998

 

 

 

Catherine McFaul paints a picture of Betsy passed down through generations of her family. Her mother, Virginia "Jenny" Ryan, remembers stories of her grandmother Betsy as being a vivacious red head with a beautiful singing voice. McFaul tells of her mother recalling her father, Patrick Ryan, (Betsy's son) who "often told his children of the twinkling, soulful eyes of his holy Irish mother. 'Me mither's eyes were the mirror of her soul'"[45a]

 

Michael and Elizabeth had 13 children, one of whom died as a baby. Two of their children, Patrick and John, married Kennedy sisters from Templeton who were step sisters-in-law of Bernard Cullen and possibly nieces of Thomas Kennedy.

 

The first records of Michael Ryan are the tax assessment rolls of Plantagenet and Alfred from 1830 to 1850. In the 1830 to 1833 period, Michael is listed as the owner of 200 acres, 100 being the east 1/2 of Lot 26, Range 2 and 100 the east 1/2 of Lot 11, Range 4 in Plantagenet Township. The latter is officially village lot #3 and was purchased in 1833 and is located in Plantagenet (then known as Chesserville). It is probably only 1 acre in size.[46] This is where he built his inn and tavern. He must have sold Lot 26, for in 1834 he owned 100 acres on the north 1/2 of Lot 20 Range 9. By 1837, he had sold this land to Moses Shane and had a 1 storey house of hewn timber with an additional fireplace and was living with Elizabeth and one female under the age of 16. (We don’t have a record of this child; perhaps she died.) The location of this house is not identified, but it is likely the Lot 4 property and the house is most likely the Commercial House/Tavern. In 1837 his assessed value was 27 pounds. He likely lived on this property until the early 1850s; he had 1 horse and 1 milk cow throughout and had 1/2 acre cultivated. His assessed value over the 1837-1850 period varied and by 1850 was 76 pounds. By 1848, Plantagenet was divided into the North and South Plantagenet Townships. Michael’s hotel was located in North Plantagenet.[47]

 

An interesting sidelight is the nature of the taxes paid during this timeframe. In 1839, Michael's assessed valuation was 27 pounds. His total taxes amounted to 3 shillings 10 pence including a base amount plus 3 1/2 pence in support of the provincial lunatic asylum and 1 shilling 4 1/2 pence toward the wages of the Member of the Provincial Parliament.[48] In those days the currency system was 12 pence to the shilling and 20 shillings to the pound.

 

The 1851 census data for North and South Plantagenet Townships in Prescott County are missing and so we are unable to find full details of the family in this decade. In 1852 Michael purchased 100 acres, the west 1/2 of Lot 9 Range 9 in North Plantagenet and in 1854 he acquired the east 1/2 of the Lot.[49] The property is about 1 mile south of Curran. He built a house on the west side of the Lot.

 

Michael Ryan's Farm

 

Michael Ryan's Inn

 

Map of North Plantagenet Township

 

Our first complete data on Michael and Elizabeth is from the 1861 Census. They were living with children Patrick, John, Michael and Barney and Elizabeth, Margaret and Catherine. Barney and his three sisters were attending school. The family lived in a 1 storey log house on their farm and Michael operated a tavern in Plantagenet Mills sited on 1 acre.[50] In the Agricultural Census, Michael valued his 200 acre farm at $3,000. He had 50 acres in crops and 20 in pasture. In 1860, he had produced 80 bu. of spring wheat, 50 of peas, 800 oats, 700 potatoes and 30 turnips as well as 10 tons of hay, 12 lbs of wool, 50 yards of flannel (no doubt produced by Elizabeth and her daughters), 100 lbs of butter, 1,000 lbs of beef and 400 lbs of pork. His livestock included 2 milk cows, 3 horses, 2 colts or fillies, 4 sheep, and 3 pigs and was valued at $340.[51] He had a large operation.

 

There is no record of employees at the tavern or the farm. Michael probably ran the tavern with help and his two eldest sons, Patrick and John, the farm.

 

Michael died on November 28, 1864 in Curran, Ontario and was buried on November 30th in the cemetery of the mill which was the original burying ground of Plantagenet and was located beside the Plantagenet Mill.[52] Michael’s remains may have been relocated later to St. Luke's Parish cemetery in Curran. It is believed that Elizabeth died in 1870 and is buried at St. Luke's.

 

 


Memorial Ryan headstone St. Luke's Parish, Curran, Ontario

 

 

 

 

 

 

Catherine Cullen & James O'Hagan

 

 

 

 

Catherine was born about 1821, arriving in Canada as a small child. Nothing is known about her life until her marriage to James O’Hagan in November 1846. They were to have 5 children in the next 9 years, two of whom died before the age of 5. Catherine, the first of the Cullens to die in Canada, passed away at age 35 on December 29, 1856 and is buried at St. Francois de Sales Parish in Templeton. Her death was reported in the January 2, 1857 issue of the Ottawa Tribune: "At Gatineau Point, in the Township of Hull, on the 29th ultimo, Catherine Cullen, the beloved wife of Jas. Hagan, Esq., aged 35 years."

 

James O'Hagan (sometimes referred to as Hagan) became one of the important early settlers in Templeton. He was born about 1815 in Ballynascreen Parish, Co. Derry, the son of Hugh O'Hagan. Hugh was a school teacher in Ireland for 13 years, before emigrating to Lower Canada c1820. He settled first in Montreal, then moved to Ste. Marie de Monnoir, where he opened and taught at a school. In 1833, he moved to Bytown opening a school close to the corners of Sussex and Murray Streets. In 1847, Hugh was one of 12 teachers employed by the Common School Trustees of Bytown,[53] where he taught until his retirement in the mid 1850s. By 1861, he was living as a "gentleman" with his wife Ann in Templeton[54].

 

James was an entrepreneur and businessman. He was a merchant and innkeeper. He was a farmer and for a time, in the timber business; he was active in local politics. He was a Justice of the Peace. He was the Town Clerk of Templeton in the 1840s. He was an enumerator of the 1851 and 1861 Censuses in Templeton. He was mayor of Templeton Township in 1861-67, 1880-81 and 1882-83 and the first mayor of Pointe-Gatineau in 1876-77 and councilor in 1881-82.[55] He was the first Postmaster of Templeton. He was also a large landowner in the Township.

 

 

James O'Hagans signature affixed to the first minutes

of the Pointe-Gatineau Council, February 19, 1876

In the 1842 census, O'Hagan, in his late 20s, is listed as a storekeeper. His location is not indicated, but he was renting property.[56] By the 1851 census, for which he acted as enumerator, he was an innkeeper and occupied 40 acres on an island (perhaps Kettle Island). Catherine is listed in this census, but, surprisingly, none of their children is listed. James had four houses of which three were unoccupied. These could have been unoccupied auberge units on the day of the census. At that time he had a small farming operation on 7 acres producing wheat, oats and potatoes.[57] He was also Town Clerk of Templeton.

 

By then, he also operated a horse-powered ferry (commencing in 1843 until 1870) between Pointe-Gatineau and McKay Bay at New Edinburgh, the terminus for the horse-drawn tramway service into Ottawa. The horse walked on a circular table which propelled a paddle providing motive power for the boat. A second horse was added later. From the 1850s to 1880s he had a contract to deliver mail three times weekly from Pointe-Gatineau to Ottawa either by vehicle or by ferry. This provided $60 of revenue annually for his ferry service. This service provided the most convenient route from Templeton to Ottawa for freight, passengers and vehicles, since, at that time, the only bridge across the Ottawa was the Union Bridge at the Chaudiere Falls. [58]

 

In the 1850s, O'Hagan became more involved in the community and business. He was appointed a Justice of the Peace. He was appointed Lieutenant in the Templeton Militia on April 17, 1856, and Captain in the reserve militia on February 19, 1869.[59]

 

In 1859, he married Elizabeth Crosby of Pointe-Fortune, the sister of his sister-in-law Ann Jane Crosby Cullen. Together they had six children.

 

By 1861, James' primary occupation was “Lumber trader”. He had $12,000 invested, 25 male and 1 female employees and produced annual product valued at $5,000. He was living with Elizabeth and their first child James and also son Hugh from his first marriage. Elizabeth's sister Maria Louisa was also living with them.[60] James may have been a partner with John Cullen Jr. James' two daughters, Mary Ann and Catherine, were living at the time with their grandparents, Hugh and Ann O'Hagan in Templeton. An oddity is that his 6 year old son Hugh, is also shown as living with his aunt and uncle Thomas and Mary Kennedy. It sounds like the older children did not fit in with their step mother.

 

By 1871, James O'Hagan was a wealthy man. He was listed as a trader. He owned 1,562 acres of land, 29 building lots in the town, 39 dwellings, 9 barns or stables, 4 carriages and sleighs, 6 carts, wagons and sleds, 3 pleasure boats and 5 ploughs and cultivators. He produced oats, potatoes and hay and his livestock included 3 horses, 2 colts, 3 milk cows, 2 cattle, 3 sheep and 2 pigs.[61]

 

After Elizabeth died in 1879, James married again to Bridget Theresa FitzMaurice.

 

James died in Pointe-Gatineau on November 24, 1893 and is buried in St. Francis de Sales Cemetery in Gatineau. Theresa died in 1905 and is buried with James.

 

 

 

James O'Hagan Headstone

 

 

There is an O'Hagan Street in Gatineau.

 

 

John Cullen Jr. & Ann Jane Crosby

 

 

 

John Cullen, Jr., the youngest of the family, was born in June 1824.[62] Nothing is known of John’s early life except for one incident with the law. On July 31, 1847, the Bytown Packet reported that John had been fined 15 shillings in Ottawa Court for assault. In September 1848, he married Ann Jane Crosby of Pointe-Fortune. She was the daughter of John Crosby, an early Pointe-Fortune settler, a shoemaker by trade, a sometime hotelier, stagecoach operator between Pointe Fortune and L’Orignal, and latterly, a farmer. Our John may have met the Crosbys through Anthony, assuming he worked for him, or through Ursula Cullen who was a sister-in-law of Ann Jane's sister Sarah. Ann Jane was Church of England and to conform to the Catholic norms of the day, she was baptized, confirmed, had her First Communion and was married in Templeton all on the same day. It is not known whether the Crosbys, likely staunch Protestants, attended the wedding. No Crosby signed the church record as witness.

 

John may have been the youngest, but he was no less a businessman. In the 1851 census, when he was 27, John was a "farmer" living in a 1 1/2 storey piece-sur-piece house on 200 acres in Range 1 (likely Lot 11). This lot fronts on The Ottawa River and includes part of the western end of McLaurin Bay. The southern third of the lot floods every spring and it is unlikely that it was ever under cultivation. The eastern lot line is approximately Rue des Sables, the western lot line approximately Rue Mitchell and Rue Leclerc approximates the north lot line. The Blanche River bisected the northwest corner of the lot.

 

Approximate location of John's land with McLaurin Bay in background

 

Listed also in the census are 1 maid and 11 labourers. Unfortunately, the total number of workers employed information is unintelligible. He had 10 acres of crops and 20 in pasture and was producing oats, potatoes and hay. He had 6 steers, 3 cows, 2 calves, 3 horses, 2 sheep and 2 pigs. He had produced 200 lbs butter and 800 lbs beef the previous year.[63]

 

Records of John’s lumber activities are sparse. There is one record for 1856 which shows him paying 33 pounds in duties for cutting 239 pieces totaling 16,300 feet of white pine.[64] There is also an application by a John Collins in 1850 for 4 licences totaling 200 square miles in the Riviere Gens de Terre area north of Maniwaki.[65] It’s the only record found under this name. This might refer to John Collins, a farmer living in Wakefield Township at the time. But there are no census references that would indicate that this individual was in the timber business. If it is our John, he would have been 26 years old, fairly young for such a large request.

 

The John Cullen Road

 

In the 1850s, John also became involved in local road construction. The lack of roads was a continual complaint by settlers, both from transportation and public works (ie. employment) perpectives. There were regular petitions made by settlers to the authorities for grants to build roads, as a means of improving the economy and opening up more areas to settlers. One such road in Templeton became known as "The John Cullen Road" and was intended to link Perkins Mills westward to the Gatineau River across from Wakefield (at Range 1, Lot 7). In 1854 Thomas Kennedy was appointed Surveyor of the route and 150 pounds appropriated for the survey. The road was estimated at 23 2/3 miles in length. Kennedy reported that there would not be much difficulty in traversing the land, that the soil was "well adapted for settlement" and that the road would be useful in developing the north part of the Township. Almost all of the funding appropriated was paid out to Kennedy and his work team.[66]

 

With the survey completed, John Cullen was appointed Overseer of the project and commenced construction in 1855. I believe this is John Jr. since his father would have been in his late 70s. John estimated a cost of 285 pounds, exclusive of three bridges needed. 300 pounds were appropriated.[67] By 1858, 12 1/2 miles were open, mostly in Templeton Township. John reported that "the soil was stony and rough, but good"; "there still remains much timber" in Templeton and Wakefield, with maple prevailing; and "$1200 would be required to complete the road".[68]

 

There are some records of payments to John for this project in the 1855 to early 1858 period; there is no record of further appropriations or payments and no evidence of the road being completed. This may be an indication that John is John Sr. who died in 1858 and if so, may have also meant the stoppage of the project. Today, there is no complete road along the line of the original project and we believe that the road was not completed. The most prominent stretch of the road remaining is Montee Paiement which routes westward from Val des Monts.

 

Montee Paiement Val des Monts 1998

 

An interesting postscript to this project is an uncomplimentary reference by Mr. O'Hanley, Upper Canada Provincial Surveyor to a legislative assembly committee on colonization. He ridiculed the method of appropriating funds and overseeing road construction in Lower Canada. He stated that "Township appropriations .... become an object of scramble for every village "great man"". Overseeing road construction is "given to persons wholly unfit". He then used the John Cullen Road as an example: "There have been appropriations for a road from the rear of Templeton to intersect the Gatineau River near the Wakefield Church a distance of 10 or 12 miles. Not less than $2,000 or $2,400 have been expended on that, and yet there is no portion of it available. I think no blame can be attributed to the individuals, the whole fault lies in the system ....."[69]

 

 

By 1861, John was a "lumberer" with 25 labourers employed and invested capital of $10,000. He was producing 6,000 feet of squared timber worth $8,000. He may have been in business with James O'Hagan. His farming operation had also increased. He had 25 acres each in crops and pasture. And he had added spring wheat to his farm produce and had a larger collection of livestock including 7 horses. At 600 bu., he was the biggest producer of oats in the Township.[70]

 

At some point in the 1860s, John and Ann Jane moved to Millbrook, Michigan. We have no indication why. Did he have a business failure? Was there a timber opportunity in Millbrook? Some other personal or family issue? There is no record. We have found him and Ann Jane in the 1870 and 1880 Census for Millbrook, Mecosta County. In 1870, he is listed as a "common laborer" and the value of his owned real estate is only $150.  He’s listed as a "laborer" in 1880. Ann Jane is listed as "House Keeper". These records indicate a significant decline in their standard of living from their days in Templeton. An oddity is that their surname is spelled "Collins" in both censuses. . While in Quebec it would be common for French Canadian census enumerators to transcribe "Collins" for "Cullen", it is unlikely to have occurred in English-speaking Michigan. We are thus at a loss for the spelling unless John was using an alias.[71] Also, the 1870 census indicates John as a U.S. citizen.

John died in Millbrook on August 19, 1885. In fact, he killed himself while  "temporarily deranged". We know nothing of the circumstances that lead to his death, except for the news clipping below. My father thinks his mental state probably resulted over time from whatever happened in his earlier life and/or business problems in Templeton.

 

Big Rapids Current, August 26, 1885

 

 

John was buried on August 21, 1885 in Section 3 Row 14 north end in the Decker Cemetery in Mecosta County. His surname is spelled "Collen" in the cemetery records.[72]

 

In May 2007, en route Vancouver - Toronto, I drove south from Sault Ste. Marie into Michigan and detoured to Millbrook in the mid-central part of the state. Millbrook is about 20 miles west of Mt. Pleasant amidst rolling farm country. The village is located in a pretty little valley containing a small, meandering brook, a renovated mill building and a few houses, some of which seem to be original. Millbrook really is a small place. Perhaps in the 1870s it was a thriving community in farming and timbering, but today it is merely a remnant of its past. The Decker Cemetery is located about one mile from Millbrook and is still in use today. It is in a pretty, rural setting among mature trees and is well tended. John’s headstone has been broken in two pieces. The inscription reads "In memory of John Collen born June 24, 1824 died August 19, 1885".

 

The author of the above article mentions "Uncle John Cullen" which suggests that other Cullen or Crosby related people lived in the area. I have not been able to find any residents with these names, but there may have been other relatives through marriage who were residents. So far, I have not been able to identify any.

 

John Cullen Jr.'s broken headstone, Decker Cemetery, Millbrook Michigan 2007

 

Sometime after John's death, Ann Jane moved back to the Crosby family farm in Pointe-Fortune where she died in July 1896. She is buried in St. Andrews East, Quebec.

 

 

 

 

 

Endnotes



[1]    On December 11, 1827, Anthony’s location ticket for 100 acres was issued.

[2]    On February 6, 1852, the Committee ( re land granting for the legislature) recommended that Anthony’s grant be confirmed and a patent be issued.

[3]    A copy of their marriage certificate is included in Appendix 2.

[4]    See History of the Counties of Argenteuil, Quebec & Prescott, Ontario, C. Thomas, John Lovell & Son, Montreal 1896 Pages 478-479

[5]    1842 census Templeton Township LAC microfilm C729, page 1273, Line 31

[6]    The information on duties paid by Anthony are from various colonial papers sited on the Early Canadiana Online website  at www.canadiana.org .

[7]    Canada Directory 1851 and Ontario Directory 1851 are included in Appendix 2.

[8]    1851 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 43 Line 8 and Page 49 Page 26

[9]    The official record of the church blessing is contained in Appendix 2.

[10]   The official record of the bell blessing is contained in Appendix 2.

[11]   The Militia of the Buckingham Area 1825-1867,    Barbara Wilson, privately published; Page 29

[12]    A list of Justices of the Peace in Mitchell & Co Canada's Classified  Directory 1865-66 Page 685 from URL http://collectionscanada.ca/canadiandirectories/

 The list is included in Appendix 2.

[13]   Appendix 66 to the fourteenth volume of the journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada ... 15th February to the 1st July, 1856 ...

 nineteenth and twentieth years of the reign of...Queen Victoria : being the 2nd session of the 5th Provincial Parliament of Canada, Page 63

[14]   Minutes of Council meeting, October 5, 1868, Municipality of Templeton Township

[15]   Ottawa Tribune, January 2, 1858; a copy of the article is included in Appendix 2.

[16]   Ottawa Tribune, January 9, 1858

[17]   List of Councillors, Municipality of Templeton Township, Municipal Archives, Gatineau

[18]   1861 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 436 Line 32 and Page 672 Line 22.

[19]   The Ottawa Citizen on June 21, 1862, carried this notice: "Cullen: In East Templeton, on Thursday the 19th instant, at the residence of his father, Antonio,

 son of Anthony Cullen, Esq., aged 17 years."

[20]   The Ottawa Times of January _, 1867 carried this notice: "St. Augustine Florida, December 28, 1866, John Godfrey Cullen, medical student, aged 23 years

 and 4 months, only son of Anthony Cullen, J.P. of East Templeton."

[21]   1891 census Templeton Township

[22]    Men of Upper Canada, Militia Nominal Rolls, 1828-1829; B.S. Elliott, Dan Walker, Fawne  Stratford-Devai, Ontario Genealogical Society, Toronto, 1995, Page18

[23]   1842 Census Templeton Township, LAC microfilm # C729, Page 1273, Line 33.

[24]   A copy of the certificate for the 1851 census of Templeton Township is included in Appendix 2.

[25]   1851 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 27 Line 1 and Page 49 line 21

[26]   The information on duties paid by Thomas Kennedy are from the Early Canadiana Online website www.canadiana.org .

[27]   1861 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 436 Line 26 and Page 672 Line 20.

[28]   1881 Census Templeton Township

[29]   1851 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 43 Line 1 and Page 49 Line 24.

[30]    Appendix to the eleventh volume of the journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada ... 19th August, 1852, to the 14th June, 1853 ... sixteenth year of the reign of ...

Queen Victoria : being the 1st Session of the 4th Provincial Parliament of Canada, Appendix QQQQ Page 28.

[31]   1851 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 27 line 27 and Page 49 line 23.

[32]   1861 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 436 Line 8 and Page 672 Line 17

[33]   List of Councillors, Municipality of Templeton Township, Municipal Archives, Gatineau

[34]    Municipality of Templeton Township Council minutes April 7, 1862

[35]   Municipality of Templeton Township Council minutes March 28, 1868 and February 16 1869

[36]   Municipality of Templeton Township Council minutes May 16, 1868.

[37]   1871 Census Templeton Township Division 3 Page 23 Line 4.

[38]   1881 Census Templeton Township Templeton East District 97 Sub-district DD Page 22 Household 89

[39]    Notarial document No. 1048 dated November 12, 1883, prepared by A. Guy, Notary of Buckingham; signed by Bernard Cullen, Mary Ann Kennedy and John

  Cullen

[40]    Notarial document No. 1049 dated November 12, 1883, prepared by A. Guy, Notary of Buckingham; signed by Bernard Cullen; witnessed by John Scullion and

  Andrew O'Brien.

[41]    1891 Census Templeton Township

[42]     Ottawa Citizen June 5, 2000

[43]    The register at Notre dame, Ottawa reads: "October 28, 1835. Married, Michael Ryan of Little nation to Elizabeth Cullen, after one proclamation at the

   church of Bytown".

[44]     C. Thomas, page 651

[45]     Men of Upper Canada, Militia Nominal Rolls, 1828-1829; B.S. Elliott, Dan Walker, Fawne Stratford-Devai, Ontario Genealogical Society, Toronto, 1995, Page 182

[45a]    Come My Beloved Vol. 1 The Ryan Family Plantagenet, Ontario and Quinnville, Quebec; Catherine Dwyer McFaul, Buckingham Quebec 1991, page 191.

[46]     Historical Notes on the "Old Burying Ground", "Cimetiere du Moulin", "The Cemetery of the Church of the Good Shepherd" Plantagenet Lot 11, Concession 4

   North Plantagenet Township, Prescott County, Ontario, John and Kay Chesser 2003 Page 3.

[47]    These data are taken from the many assessment rolls for Plantagenet and Alfred on LAC microfilm M7736.

[48]    The Assessment Roll of the Township of Plantagenet for the Year 1839, LAC Microfilm M7736.

[49]    Land registry office, L'Orignal, Ontario

[50]    1861 Census North Plantagenet Township District 2 Page 34 Line 30.

[51]    1861 Agricultural Census North Plantagenet Township District 2 Page 18 Line 3.

[52]    Death notice on Page 182 of Mariages, Sepultures et Annotations Marginales ,Paroisse de Curran 1839-1994, Societe Franco-Ontarienne d’Histoire et

  Genealogie, Ottawa 1997, states "inh. cimetiere du moulin".

[53]     Ottawa, Past and Present, A.H.D. Ross (Thorburn & Abbott, Ottawa 1927) pages 128 & 130

[54]     1861 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 415 Line 48.

[55]     List of Councillors, Municipality of Templeton Township, Municipal Archives, Gatineau

[56]    1842 Census Templeton Township LAC Microfilm # C729, Page 1271 Line 23.

[57]    1851 Census Templeton Township District 1, Page 17, Line 48 and Page 47 Line 35.

[58]    On page 195 of Ottawa Waterway - Gateway to a Continent, Robert Legget, University of Toronto Press 1975, there is the following comment on ferry service

          across the Ottawa River: "Other ferries gave crossing service above and below the Union Bridge, perhaps the most famous being that between what is now

          Rockcliffe and Gatineau Point. It has been in service for 130 years since it was started in 1843 by James O'Hagan of the Point, who operated it until 1870.

          The access road to the south bank of the river from the high ground of New Edinburgh was built before the ferry started and was called Rockcliffe, giving its

          name to the present municipality of Rockcliffe Park."

[59]     The Militia of the Buckingham Area 1825-1867, Barbara Wilson, privately published; page 29.

[60]     1861 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 427 Line 37

[61]     1871 Census Templeton Township Division 1 Page 25 Line 11.

[62]     John Cullen, death record, Decker Cemetery, Blanchard, Michigan.

[63]     1851 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 27 Line 13 and Page 49 Line 22

[64]     Page 250 of    Appendix A25 to the fifteenth volume of the journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada ... 26th February to the

          10th June, 1857 ... twentieth year of the reign of ... Queen Victoria : being the 3rd session of the 5th Provincial Parliament of Canada

[65]     Appendix MM to the nineteenth volume of the journals of the legislative Assembly of the Province du Canada ... 14th May to the 10th of

           August 1850 ....thirteenth and fourteenth years of the reign of ... Queen Victoria, being the 3rd session of the 3rd Provincial Parliament of Canada.

[66]     Page 59 of Appendix MM to the thirteenth volume of the journals of the legislative Assembly of the Province du Canada ... 5th September 1854 to 30th

           May 1855 .. twenty-eighth year of the reign of ..Queen Victoria, being the 1st session of the 5th Provincial Parliament of Canada.

[67]      Page 48 of Appendix 38 to the fourteenth volume of the journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada ..15th February to the 1st of July            1856, in the nineteenth and twentieth years of the reign of ... Queen Victoria, being the 2nd session of the 5th Provincial Parliament of Canada

[68]      Page 166 of Appendix 15 to the sixteenth volume of the journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, from the 25th February to 16th             August, 1858 ... in the twenty-first and twenty-second years of the reign of ... Queen Victoria : being the 1st session of the 6th Provincial Parliament of             Canada

[69]      Page 14 of  Appendix 5 of the Journals of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, from February 28 to May 19, 1860 ... in the twenty-third year             of the reign of ... Queen Victoria: being the 3rd session of the 6th Provincial Parliament of Canada

[70]      1861 Census Templeton Township District 1 Page 433 Line 22 and Page 672 Line 27

[71]      1870 Census Town of Millbrook, Mecosta County, Michigan, Page 2, Line 18, July 6, 1870. 1880 Census NA Film No. T9-0594

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